This is the most important topic in
computer terminology. Because computers only understand the number that is
binary numbers. Each and everything is represented in binary numbers (0,1). We can
perform operation on binary numbers like addition, subtraction, AND, OR, NOT
etc but we will not be studying here basic operation on number system like
addition, subtraction, AND, OR, NOT etc. We will be studying how to use the binary
number system for effective utilization of processors.

We will be studying operation on binary
numbers like multiplication and division. Do you known how the computer
performs multiplication? Let's discuss on it. In computer system there is a
shift operation (<< and >>) for shifting binary bits to left or
right. So we called it as left shift (<<) and right shift (>>)
operation. If we apply left shift operation then number is multiplied and if we
apply right shift then number is divided. Look below how numbers are multiplied and
divided.

Let the multiplier =2 and multiplicand =8

1 0 0 0 binary
of 8

0 0 1 0 binary
of 2

Now shift multiplier left by 1 and check
out result what we get.

Figure 1. Shift left by 1 |

We get binary 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 which is
binary of 16. Thus 8 got multiplied by 2.

Now look below for division:

Let the dividend=8 and divisor=2

Now shift dividend right by 1 and check
out result what we get.

Figure2. Shift right by 1 |

We get binary 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 which is
binary of 4. Thus 8 got divided by 2.

Here we understood how the computer
performs multiplication and division. But this logic of multiplication is applied
for multiplying multiplicand by even multiplier. If multiplier is odd number
then we have to follow Booth's algorithm.

- Sunil Badame